Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?Prostate cancer is a serious condition affecting thousands of men in middle-age or older people every year. When an abnormal growth of cells occurs in the prostate it is called prostate cancer or adenocarcinomas that are normally malignant. If detected in the early stages, there are effective treatments available. There are 4 common types of prostate cancers:

  1. Small cell carcinomas
  2. Neuroendocrine tumours
  3. Transitional cell carcinomas
  4. Sarcomas

All these are very rare cases of prostate cancer when compared to adenocarcinomas. Based on its growth, it is classified into 2 categories:

  1. Aggressive or fast-growing – The tumour grows quickly and spreads to different parts of the body.
  2. Non-aggressive or slow-growing – Either the tumour doesn't grow, or grows very little over some time.

Prostate Cancer SymptomsMost of the time there are no symptoms and are diagnosed at a very old age. However, those who notice some of the sign will have the following prostate cancer symptoms:

  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination during the nights
  • Difficulty in starting and maintaining urination
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Pain on ejaculation
  • Difficulty in getting ejaculation and maintaining it
  • If the prostate is enlarged, there will be difficulty in sitting

In advanced stages, you’ll notice the following symptoms:

  • Bone fracture, or pain in the shoulder, hips, or thigh bones
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling in the legs or feet
  • Back pain
  • Changes in regular bowel habit

Who is at Risk?Prostate cancer risk factors that put you at a high risk of developing this condition include the following:

  • Age
  • Genetic factor – if you have a family history, your chances increase. A family history of breast cancer also increases the risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • Obesity
  • Ethnicities – Black men carry a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than any other race and seems to be aggressive and at advanced stages of this condition.

All of the above will serve as reasons for prostate cancer and shall require medical assistance.Prostate Cancer CausesThe common causes are still unknown. It could be caused by genetic factors, family history, or exposure to certain chemicals. Prostate cancer causes may vary from person to person. Whatever may be the cause, it triggers cell mutation and uncontrolled cell growth in the prostate. These cancerous or precancerous cells in the prostate gland are called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Almost 50% of men have PIN after the age of 50 years. These cells can be low grade or high grade. Low-grade cells may not grow and turn into cancerous growth, whereas high-grade cells can grow and spread faster. Other causes may include:

  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Diet
  • Inflammation of the prostate
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Vasectomy

How is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?If you have noticed any symptoms, as a first step, you may consult a prostate cancer doctor. The doctor will do a physical examination and ask about the symptoms. The doctor will also check for family history and previous medical history to check the condition. Other tests involved in prostate cancer diagnosis include:

  • PSA levels through a blood test
  • Urine test
  • Digital Rectal Exam helps to detect any lumps or tumours on the prostate gland.
  • A PCA3 gene test in the urine
  • Other tests like CT scan, MRI scan or bone scan
  • Prostate biopsy to confirm cancer

How is Prostate Cancer Treated?Consulting with an oncologist will be ideal to develop a prostate cancer treatment plan based on age, health condition, and the stage of cancer. If it is non-aggressive cancer the doctor will proceed with active surveillance through regular check-ups to identify the growth. There may be some medicine for prostate cancer during this stage. If it is aggressive cancer, the doctor may proceed with the following treatment options as mentioned below:

  • Hormone therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Cryotherapy
  • Radiation
  • Surgery
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery
  • Immunotherapy

For prostate cancer cure, approach your nearest centre, a leading healthcare provider in India. We have all well qualified and efficient doctors on our panel. You can simply logon to our website and choose an appropriate doctor to check the availability for consultation. Simply send a Whatsapp message to book an appointment. After confirmation, you can be ready with all medical reports that can help in treatment for your prostate cancer.How can Prostate Cancer be Prevented?Certain factors that put you at the risk of prostate cancer can be controlled. For example, smoking increase the risk of prostate cancer. Hence quitting smoking can help reduce the risk of developing it. Similarly, obesity is another factor that puts you at risk. Therefore following a diet rich in vitamins, minerals, and fibre instead of fat and milk products will help. Also, exercise will help to lose weight thereby reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer. All these can help in the prevention of prostate cancer.

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