What is Infertility?Infertility means a couple cannot conceive even after having regular unprotected intercourse. Infertility is common and is a condition where a woman may have a hard time getting pregnant or unable to carry on and give birth. A woman is said to be infertile if she is unable to get pregnant after 12 months of trying or has many miscarriages. Infertility can also happen to men and can be the cause of the problem. Hence when a couple has a hard time getting pregnant, both are tested by an infertility doctor. Infertility SymptomsSymptoms of infertility in women are:

  • Irregular periods: A woman whose cycles vary so much that she is unable to estimate her periods.
  • Painful, heavy, or no periods: Has cramps and heavy bleeding or has no periods at all temporarily.
  • Hormone fluctuations: Weight gain, thinning hair, skin issues, reduced sex drive, facial hair growth.

Symptoms for men are:

  • Pain or swelling: Swelling or pain in the testicles and contribute to infertility.
  • Hormonal imbalance: Change in virility dependent on hormones is a sign of infertility. Reduced hormone levels mean erection problems and ejaculation issues.
  • Testicles health: Issues with testicles can cause infertility issues and hence needs to be tested by a urologist.

Who is at Risk?Certain lifestyle and health issues, increase infertility risk factors. They are:

  • People who are undergoing or have undergone chemotherapy or radiation have a high risk of infertility
  • Obese, overweight or even underweight male or female
  • Being older than 35 years of age for a women
  • Overexposure to lead, pesticides, and other environmental factors pose a risk of infertility.
  • Smokers both men and women have increased chances of infertility
  • Excessive alcohol consumption and those who abuse drugs.
  • Those with injuries to testes and scrotum
  • Those with pelvic inflammatory disease
  • People who wear too tight clothing or bathe or swim in hot water have overheated testicles and are at risk of infertility.

Infertility CausesInfertility in men is caused due to

  • Lack of or reduced sperm production
  • The number of sperm produced is less
  • Issues with the shape of the sperm
  • Problems with the sperm movement. There could be issues with the wiggling motion of the sperm and the transportation of the sperm to the male reproductive system.
  • Certain medical conditions and medications can also cause infertility.

The reasons for infertility in women are:

  • Issues with ovulation when the egg is expelled from the ovary
  • Fertilization problems
  • Problem during implantation where the fertilized egg attaches to the uterus lining.
  • Medical issues like fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, scarring due to surgery, etc.

How is Infertility Diagnosed?If you have been trying to conceive for over a year and unable to do so, then you should visit a doctor. The doctor first diagnoses if it is primary or secondary types of infertility. Diagnosis for men:

  • A physical examination along with detailed investigation of medical, sexual, and overall health history.
  • Semen analysis is done in labs by taking a semen sample.
  • Additionally, tests like hormone testing, genetic testing, and genital ultrasound are done based on semen test results.

Infertility diagnosis women involve:An investigation of medical history, sexual, and state of the overall health is done.

  • A pelvic area examination is done to check for issues like fibroids.
  • Blood tests are done as an infertility test to check for ovulation.
  • Ultrasound tests are done to check the uterus and ovaries.
  • Additional tests include the FSH test, laparoscopy.

How is Infertility Treated?Infertility treatment depends on the cause, age, overall health, and preferences of the partners after consultation with the doctor. Treatment for men include:Medications: Medicine for infertility to treat hormonal imbalances. Surgery: Obstruction that is preventing sperm transport is fixed.ART: Assisted reproductive technology in which the eggs and sperms are handled outside the body.Treatment for women

  • Medications: To treat hormonal imbalances and regulate ovulation.
  • Surgery: To remove fibroids, blockage of fallopian tubes, etc.
  • ART: IVF and IUI are some forms of ART.

If you have problems conceiving, speak to our specialists at, they provide various treatment options that can produce the desired results. Our urologist and infertility doctors are now available for online consultations.How can Infertility be Prevented?Some of the infertility prevention tips are:

  • Both men and women should maintain a healthy weight as that prevents infertility.
  • Consume a balanced diet that is rich in grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Avoid consumption of caffeine and alcohol.
  • Quit smoking
  • Incorporate exercise into your routine so that it helps in the regulation of hormones
  • Avoid the use of illegal drugs like marijuana
  • Older women are more prone to infertility and hence should time the pregnancy based on health.
  • Reduce stress and concentrate on mental health as the best infertility cure.

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