What is MRSA?Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterial infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria in different parts of the body. This kind of bacteria is resistant to most of the antibiotics. Generally, they are harmless and found in the nose and on the skin. When they multiply unmanageably it may result in infection. It happens when there is a cut, wound, or break in the skin and is highly contagious and easily spreads through direct contact with the infected person. There are mainly two types of MRSA:
- Hospital-Acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA)
- Community-Acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA)
HA-MRSA is an infection contracted in medical amenities such as nursing homes and hospitals. This kind of infection can be acquired by coming directly in touch with an infected persons wound or contaminated hands, linen, poorly sanitized medical instruments, etc. HA-MRSA can lead to severe pneumonia or blood infections.CA-MRSA is transmitted by direct contact with an infected person. This type of MRSA is developed by improper hygiene and infrequent hand washing.MRSA SymptomsMRSA symptoms will vary depending on the type of MRSA infection.HA-MRSA cause serious issues like pneumonia, sepsis, or UTI. You shall consult an MRSA doctor if you notice the following symptoms:
- Muscle pain
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
CA-MRSA causes infection to the skin, armpits, or back of the neck. Body areas that are frequently rubbed, scratched, or cut are more susceptible to this kind of infection. This infection will have the following features:
- Painful bump that resembles a pimple with a white or yellow centre with a central head.
- Pus formation in the infected area
- Redness or warmth
Who is at Risk?MRSA risk factors may vary depending on the type of MRSA infection. Here are some of the factors that will make you more susceptible to infection:
- If you have an underlying disease condition.
- If you have a weak immune system
- If you live in a nursing home or hospital premises
- If you undergo regular hemodialysis
- If you were hospitalized within the past 3 months of the onset of this infection.
The risk of developing CA-MRSA is high in the following cases:
- If you work at a daycare facility
- If you live in a crowded place
- If you live in an unhygienic and unsanitary condition
- If you participate in contact sports
- If you share towels, or razors, or exercise equipment with other people.
MRSA CausesSeveral staphylococcus aureus bacteria exist on our skin and in the nose commonly known as 'staph'. They are harmless in healthy people until they enter the body through cuts or wounds. Hence many are carriers of these staph bacteria. Ever since the use of antibiotics for cold, flu, and viral infections that makes our body antibiotic-resistant. All these acts as causes of MRSA.How is MRSA diagnosed?MRSA diagnosis starts with a physical examination and medical history assessment. Samples from the infected area are collected that will help in diagnosis. The following tests will also help in MRSA diagnosis.
- Wound culture Wound samples are analyzed for the presence of staph bacteria.
- Sputum culture Those who can cough will give the sputum sample to check the presence of blood, pus, cell fragments, and bacteria. If unable to cough, a bronchoscopy is advised for sputum collection.
- Urine culture It is done by collecting the urine into a sterile cup or directly collecting the urine from the urinary bladder using a catheter to analyze for the presence of bacteria.
- Blood culture Is done to detect which type of bacteria is causing infection. A positive result is the indication of sepsis.
How is MRSA Treated?The MRSA treatment starts with oral antibiotics that are commonly used as medicine for MRSA that will improve the condition. If you have a larger infection, the doctor or paediatricians in the case of infected children will recommend performing drainage or incision of the infected area. Local anaesthesia will be given for this procedure. Afterwards, you might not require an antibiotic course for MRSA cure.To find an MRSA doctor in your locality, it is ideal to check in Cure.fit website. They have all specialities under one roof. You can easily book an appointment by sending a WhatsApp message to the given number and wait until they confirm. Once the appointment is confirmed you can be assured to get the best and effective treatment securing your privacy at every stage of treatment.How can MRSA be prevented?The preventionof MRSA is done through the following measures.
- By isolating the infected person to prevent further spread of the condition
- Using protective measures and maintaining personal hygiene
- Washing the hands frequently
- Keeping the wounds covered
- By not sharing the personal items with others
- Taking bath after participating in contact sports
- Sanitize the linen using hot water and bleach and dry in a hot dryer