What is Diarrhoea?

Diarrhoea can be defined as a frequent bowel movement with reduced stool consistency resulting in the discharge of loose or watery stools. The severity of Diarrhoea can be differentiated based on the volume and number of stools passed in a particular period. Here are 3 different types of Diarrhoea.

  • Mild Diarrhea: Limited bowel movements in a day
  • Moderate Diarrhea: Not more than ten frequent Diarrhoea stools in a day.
  • Severe Diarrhea: More than ten watery stools within 24 hours.

Another differentiation of Diarrhoea is as follows;In Watery Diarrhoea, liquid stools are passed more than three times in a day. In children, it is caused by rotavirus and in adults, it is caused by norovirus.  But traveller's Diarrhoea is caused by bacteria. In acute condition, this will last from 2 days up to 2 weeks, whereas in the chronic condition it may last for 4 weeks. In Bloody Diarrhoea, blood from the digestive tract starting from mouth to anus can be mixed in the loose watery stools. It is a critical condition and a Symptom of gastrointestinal bleeding caused by any Disease or injury. In this condition, you will have more than ten bowel movements in a day and can last up to 2-5 days.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Diarrhoea?

Several Diarrhoea Symptoms are depending on the cause. You may notice only one or a combination of some of the Symptoms as follows;

  • Dehydration
  • Fever
  • Stomach pain
  • Bloating
  • Cramps
  • Nausea
  • Blood in the stools
  • The urgency in passing stools
  • Passing a large volume of stools

In children, Diarrhoea leads to severe dehydration risking the life of the child. So check for the following Symptoms too;

  • Dry mouth
  • Reduced urination
  • Headache
  • Lack of tears while crying
  • Fatigue
  • Dry skin
  • Drowsiness
  • Irritability
  • Sunken eyes
  • Sunken fontanel

Who is at Risk?

It is a common condition in developing countries. Young children are most affected and at least 3 times in a year. Researches show that children under 5 years living in developing countries are at risk and shows a high death rate.

  • Children under 5 years of age
  • Malnourished Children
  • Children with low or impaired immunity
  • People who are HIV positive

The Risk Factors of Diarrhoea include lack of education, low economy, poor water storage facilities, drinking unTreated water, overcrowding of children less than 5 years of age living in the same house. The ruling government should take necessary steps and come up with public awareness to eradicate the Risk Factors.

Causes of Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea can be caused by many reasons, conditions, and circumstances. The Potential Causes of Diarrhoea might include the following;

  • Food allergy
  • Lactose intolerance
  • As a side effect of any medication
  • Viral infection by rotavirus
  • Bacterial infection by E.coli, or salmonella
  • Parasitic infection
  • Intestinal disorders
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Inflammatory bowel Disease
  • As a result of abdominal or gall bladder surgery
  • Stress, and anxiety
  • Use of laxatives

How is Diarrhoea Diagnosed?

Diagnosis of Diarrhoea can be completed by a gastroenterologist through laboratory tests of urine and blood samples, physical examination and reviewing the medical history to detect the cause of Diarrhoea. A complete blood test for Diarrhoea can detect the cause of Diarrhoea. Additional test that can be prescribed by a doctor for Diarrhoea include the following to determine the various route cause;

  • A fasting test to detect any food allergy or food intolerance.
  • A stool culture can identify the presence of any bacteria or parasites or any other Signs of Disease.
  • A Colonoscopy that will help examines the entire colon to check for the Signs of intestinal problem.
  • An imaging test that can check for structural deformities or inflammation of the intestine.
  • A Sigmoidoscopy that will help examines the lower colon and rectum for any Signs of intestinal Diseases.

Colonoscopies and sigmoidoscopy are helpful in conditions of severe and chronic Diarrhoea to figure out any intestinal Diseases.

How is Diarrhoea Treated?

Treatment line of Diarrhoea involves fluid replacement therapy. For instance, if you suffer from persistent Diarrhoea, you may consult a gastroenterologist to detect the severity of the case and start the Treatment.  The doctor will analyse the Diarrhoea test results and decide the Treatment based on the following status;

  • Severity of Diarrhoea
  • The frequency of Diarrhoea
  • The dehydration level of your body
  • Your age
  • Your general health condition
  • Previous medical history
  • Your body's acceptance of Diarrhoea medicine
  • Recovery expectations based on your current health

To search for the best Gastroenterologist nearby to your locality, you can log on to cure. Fit.  They are one of the leading health and wellness concerns that provide service related to health, food and fitness. Their wellness panel has several qualified and experienced doctors and expertise in all streams of speciality medicine. You can reach them out to consult a doctor online for Diarrhoea Treatment. The doctor can be consulted on video call as well. To book an appointment, you can send a WhatsApp message on the number displayed on their website according to your convenience. The team will revert to you for confirmation after checking with the particular doctor you have chosen. You are also given the option to upload your previous medical reports before your appointment so that the doctor can understand the patient’s health status well in advance. Cure.fit ensures the privacy of your consultation at a low cost as well.

How can Diarrhoea be Prevented?

Although there are various reasons for Diarrhoea, certain appropriate and timely actions taken can help in Diarrhoea Prevention. Here are some tips to Prevent Diarrhoea.

  • Children below 5 years can be vaccinated for rotavirus infection with other vaccinations.
  • Maintain personal hygiene. Cook in a clean environment. Wash the utensils properly and wash your hands thoroughly before handling food. This will help to prevent food poisoning.
  • Serve the food instantly after cooking.
  • Balance food should be refrigerated properly in closed containers. Do not eat foods that are refrigerated for many days.
  • Thaw the frozen food taken from the refrigerator before eating.

When travelling to a developing country, you may follow the below-mentioned steps to Prevent traveller's Diarrhoea.

  • Eat well-cooked food
  • Drink bottled or Treated or boiled water
  • Avoid tap water and fresh juices from outside.
  • Consult your doctor and have some medicines in stock before you plan your trip to handle any critical situation effectively.

Besides maintaining personal hygiene, it is the responsibility of a citizen to Prevent the spread of viral and bacterial infections in our society. Washing your hands frequently with soap and using sanitizer’s in the absence of soap can kill the germs and control the spread of any infectious disease.

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Posted 
July 19, 2022
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