Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or commonly known as ADHD is a mental health condition that can lead to abnormal levels of hyperactivity along with impulsive behavior. ADHD also causes trouble focusing attention on a single task for a long period. Most people experience that their energy levels change or they can not maintain their focus for a long period. People with ADHD experience the same symptoms with more intensity and frequency in comparison to people who don't have ADHD. As a result of these, the work-life, studies, and personal life of people get affected significantly.

ADHD Major Symptoms

There can be a wide range of behaviors that point toward ADHD syndrome. A few of the major ADHD symptoms are:

  1. Inability to focus or concentrate on tasks
  2. Forgetting whether you have completed a task or not
  3. Getting distracted by thoughts
  4. Inability to sit still for a long period
  5. Interrupting

These were a few common symptoms that are experienced by every person who has attention deficit disorder. Some specific symptoms are linked with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and other different aspects of ADHD. The ADHD symptoms that are specifically linked with impulsivity and hyperactivity are:

  1. Having problem sitting still, for example in the office or the class
  2. Inability or having problems while performing a task quietly
  3. Talking when it is not required
  4. Impatience while waiting for their turn
  5. Interrupting other people while they are doing important work, playing, or speaking

The symptoms that are specifically linked with difficulty having focus are:

  1. Missing details or making little mistakes when doing work
  2. Inability to focus while doing a conversation, reading something, or listening to someone
  3. Losing or forgetting items
  4. Getting distracted by small things in the environment

Both children and adults can have ADHD disorder. You or your child must experience all of the above-mentioned symptoms. The symptoms depend on the type of ADHD you have.

Types of ADHD

Over time, scientists and doctors have been making consistent growth in knowing more about ADHD disorder. As we now know more about it, the condition is grouped into three major types or categories:

1. Predominantly inattentive types

As its name reveals, people with the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD face problems while focusing on something, following the exact instructions, and finishing tasks. ADHD experts say that of all three types of ADHD, children with these types of ADHD are diagnosed the least since they do not interrupt the room. It is also noted that predominantly inattentive type of ADHD is more common in girls than boys.

2. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type

A child or an adult with predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder will show the following behavior:

  1. Fidgeting
  2. Impatience while waiting for their turn
  3. Interrupting other people while they are doing important work, playing, or speaking

People who have this type of ADHD also suffer from inattention. However, the problem is not severe so it does not cause a major problem.

3. Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive type

A majority of people have this type of ADHD syndrome. As you can guess from the name, people with this condition show both symptoms: hyperactive and inattentive. These symptoms include a tendency to get impulsive, high levels of energy and activity, having problems while paying attention, etc.The type of ADHD you or your child is having will determine the treatment. The type of ADHD can change over time. So, the treatment also changes according to the type of ADHD.

ADHD Causes

While doctors and researchers have made great progress knowing about ADHD, the reasons for attention deficit disorder are still not clear to them. It is believed that genetics and neurological origins might play a role in developing ADHD. Some sources suggest that a reduction in dopamine can lead to ADHD. This is a chemical present in the brain that moves signals between different nerves and triggers movements and emotional responses. Other sources suggest that structural differences in the brain might also be the cause of ADHD. They have found that people with different types of ADHD have less gray matter in the brain as compared to people who don't have ADHD.

ADHD Diagnosis and Testing

A single type of ADHD testing can not diagnose ADHD with full surety. Researchers are working on different tests that can help in ADHD diagnosis but these tests are in the developmental phase. Doctors assess your symptoms for a long period (past 6 months or more) to make an ADHD diagnosis. Doctors also gather information from people with whom you interact on a day-to-day basis, for example, your teachers, family members, or colleagues. Different checklists and rating scales are used for ADHD testing. Your treatment will depend on the outcome of the assessment of the symptoms.

ADHD treatment

As we mentioned earlier, ADHD treatment depends on the type of ADHD you have. A typical ADHD treatment includes medication and behavioral therapies. Some treatments include both types of treatment techniques. Behavior therapy includes talk therapy and psychotherapy. In talk therapy, you discuss how the disorder is affecting your life. You also get to know some ways you can manage it. In behavioral therapy, a therapist will help you learn how to monitor your behavior and how to manage it to increase the quality of your life. Medications are also found to be very effective in managing behavior. These medications can affect some specific chemicals present in your brain that ultimately helps in controlling your impulses, actions, and whole behavior. Some doctors suggest other methods that can increase your inner peace and help you maintain your concentration. A few examples of these ADHD treatment methods and techniques are:

  1. Pranayama and other breathing exercises
  2. Performing a physical activity for at least an hour a day
  3. Mindfulness
  4. Reducing your screen time
  5. Getting ample amount of sleep
  6. meditation for concentration
  7. Eating a balanced diet
  8. Spending time outdoors
  9. Avoiding allergens and food additives

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